We look back on some of the important insights into biomedicine published this year.

Now, researchers have chalked up the normal inflammatory response to the shared evolutionary origin of mitochondria and bacteria. Researchers from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston examined the bloodstream plasma of 15 trauma patients and found circulating the different parts of mitochondrial DNA and proteins known as formyl peptides. Notably, these same receptors and signaling pathways are triggered by invading bacteria also, leading to a robust inflammatory response resembling sepsis. Med. 16, 614, 2010). Image by istockphoto.. We look back on some of the important insights into biomedicine published this year. Development: Sticking to thalidomide The sedative and morning-sickness drug thalidomide was withdrawn in 1961 after doctors observed that it caused multiple birth defects, including limb, ear, heart and gut malformations.How is it possible to fake peer review? Moon, who studies medicinal plant life, had set up a straightforward procedure. He gave journals recommendations for peer reviewers for his manuscripts, offering them with e-mail and names addresses. But these addresses were ones he created, so the requests to examine went right to him or his co-workers. The fallout from Moon’s confession: 28 articles in various journals released by Informa were retracted, and one editor resigned. An editor at among the journals published by Sage Publications became suspicious, sparking a lengthy and comprehensive investigation, in July 2014 which led to the retraction of 60 articles. By the end of 2014, BioMed Central and other publishers alerted the international Committee on Publication Ethics to new forms of systematic attempts to manipulate journals’ peer-review processes.