How different are the two medicines? Pharmacologically speaking, GSK’s Avandia and Takeda’s Actos are quite similar. They belong to a class of medicines known as thiazolidinediones, or TZDs, and both may be used by itself or in conjunction with other medicines like metformin, sulfonylureas and insulin. But whereas various other diabetes medications act by stimulating the body to create more insulin, TZDs work by raising the senstivity of cells to insulin that’s already in the body. Avandia and Actos block PPAR-gamma, a transcription factor inside cell nuclei that normally binds to fatty acids. When activated, PPAR-gamma upregulates genes that increase insulin resistance in tissues.Brain Inflammation COULD BE Linked to Schizophrenia: – FRIDAY, Oct. 15, 2015 – – Researchers say they’ve found a connection between brain irritation and schizophrenia. British investigators used PET scans to assess immune cell activity in the brains of 56 people. Some had schizophrenia, some had been at risk for the mental disorder, and others had no risk or symptoms of the condition. The results showed that immune cells are more vigorous in the brains of people with schizophrenia and those at risk for the condition. Our findings are particularly exciting since it was previously unidentified whether these cells become energetic before or after onset of the condition, lead author Peter Bloomfield, of the Medical Study Council’s Clinical Sciences Center at Imperial College London, stated in a college news release.