Laboratory Evaluation and Analyses of Additional Covariates Plasma degrees of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase were measured in the nonfasting condition,15 by using standard medical center assays. LDL cholesterol levels were calculated by using the Friedewald equation16 when plasma triglyceride levels were 4.00 mmol per liter or much less and were otherwise measured directly . Lipoprotein was measured as defined previously.17 Levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured by means of turbidimetry or nephelometry .Mott Children’s Hospital. Children 0 to thirty six months of age who were being admitted to the cardiac ICU after undergoing cardiac medical procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass were included. Children with diabetes or without sufficient intravascular access were excluded. The study was accepted by the institutional review board at each institution, and written educated consent was acquired from parents or legal guardians.